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Oral cholera vaccination coverage in an acute emergency setting in Somalia, 2017
Mutaawe Lubogo | Ahmed M. Mohamed | Abdullahi H. Ali | Aden H. Ali | Ghulam R. Popal | David Kiongo | Khalif Mohamud Bile | Mamunur Malik | Abdinasir Abubakar
Date of Publication:
February 29, 2020
The first oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in Somalia was implemented between March and October 2017. It was the first time the Ministry of Health had introduced and used OCV as part of the cholera prevention and control strategies. The Ministry of Health aimed to cover 1.1 million people ≥ 1 year with 2 doses of the OCV in 11 high-risk districts. Overall, 2-dose administrative OCV coverage in all targeted districts was 95.5%. Following the campaign, a random sample survey was conducted in 9 out of 11districts to evaluate coverage, awareness, reasons for non-vaccination, the water and sanitation status of households, and any resulting adverse events. The survey was conducted in 2 phases. Of the 3,715 eligible individuals in the first phase, 92.5% (95% CI 91.4–93.6%) received 2 doses of the OCV and 7.0% (95% CI 6.0–8.2%) 1 dose. In the second phase, of 1,926 individuals, 94.1% (95% CI 92.9–95.1%) received 2 doses and 2.6% (95% CI 2.0–3.4%) 1 dose. Despite challenges, this experience shows that OCV campaigns can be implemented in acute humanitarian settings through existing immunization structures.
The cholera epidemic in Yemen - How did it start? The role of El Niño conditions followed by regional winds
Date of Publication:
September 1, 2019
The largest cholera epidemic of modern times began during the autumn of 2016 in Yemen, under ongoing war conditions. What exactly caused the epidemic to emerge is unclear.
Global Cholera Epidemiology: Opportunities to Reduce the Burden of Cholera by 2030
Date of Publication:
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
While safe drinking water and advanced sanitation systems have made the Global North cholera-free for decades, the disease still affects 47 countries across the globe resulting in an estimated 2.86 million cases and 95,000 deaths per year worldwide. Cholera impacts communities already burdened by conflict, lack of infrastructure, poor health systems, and malnutrition. In October 2017, the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) launched an initiative titled Ending Cholera: A Global Roadmap to 2030, with the objective to reduce cholera deaths by 90% worldwide, and eliminate cholera in at least 20 countries by 2030. The GTFCC is working to position cholera control not as a vertical programme but instead using cholera as a marker of inequity and an indicator of poverty, linking the objectives of the Roadmap to the SDGs. The roadmap consists of targeted multi-sectoral interventions, supported by a coordination mechanism, along 3 axes: (1) early detection and quick response to contain outbreaks; (2) a multisectoral approach to prevent cholera recurrence in hotspots; (3) an effective partnership mechanism of coordination for technical support, countries capacity building, research and M&E, advocacy and resource mobilization. Every case and every death from cholera is preventable with the tools we have today.
Emerging and Reemerging Diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region—Progress, Challenges, and WHO Initiatives
Evans Buliva | Mohamed Elhakim | Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh | Amgad Elkholy | Peter Mala | Abdinasir Abubakar | Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
Date of Publication:
Frontiers in Public Health
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human–animal interaction. In EMR, several infectious disease outbreaks were detected, investigated, and rapidly contained over the past 5 years including: yellow fever in Sudan, Middle East respiratory syndrome in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, cholera in Iraq, avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in Egypt, and dengue fever in Yemen, Sudan, and Pakistan. Dengue fever remains an important public health concern, with at least eight countries in the region being endemic for the disease. The emergence of MERS-CoV in the region in 2012 and its continued transmission currently poses one of the greatest threats. In response to the growing frequency, duration, and scale of disease outbreaks, WHO has worked closely with member states in the areas of improving public health preparedness, surveillance systems, outbreak response, and addressing critical knowledge gaps. A Regional network for experts and technical institutions has been established to facilitate support for international outbreak response. Major challenges are faced as a result of protracted humanitarian crises in the region. Funding gaps, lack of integrated approaches, weak surveillance systems, and absence of comprehensive response plans are other areas of concern. Accelerated efforts are needed by Regional countries, with the continuous support of WHO, to build and maintain a resilient public health system for detection and response to all acute public health events.