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Immunogenicity of a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine in forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh
Fahima Chowdhury | Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan | Afroza Akter | Md Saruar Bhuiyan | Ashraful Islam Khan | Motaher Hossain | Imam Tauheed | Tasnuva Ahmed | Shaumik Islam | Tanzeem Ahmed Rafique | Shah Alam Siddique | Nabila Binta Harun | Khaleda Islam | John D. Clemens | Firdausi Qadri
Date of Publication:
Mar 16, 2020
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are now on the WHO stockpile and targeted for use for countries with outbreaks and epidemics but also for control of endemic cholera. In Bangladesh many studies have been carried out to assess the safety, immunogenicity as well as feasibility of vaccination in the endemic settings of the country. However, with the large recent influx of displaced Rohingya nationals from Myanmar (termed Forcibly Displace Myanmar National; FDMN), mass campaigns with OCV were conducted between October 2017-December 2018. However, no data is available of the previous exposure to cholera of this population, prior to their arrival in Bangladesh. An assessment of immunogenicity status of FDMN is needed to find out if OCV is able to elicit comparable immune response and whether the same dose regimen of OCV was immunogenic among the FDMNs. In this study, we have measured the immune responses to the OCV, Shanchol, in adults (18 years and above), older children (6–17 years), and younger children (1–5 years). The results of this study shows that the oral cholera vaccine capable of inducing an immune response in adults and children among this FDMN population and the responses were comparable to that seen in Bangladeshi participants in earlier studies.
Post-vaccination campaign coverage evaluation of oral cholera vaccine, oral polio vaccine and measles–rubella vaccine among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals in Bangladesh
Ashraful Islam Khan | Md Taufiqul Islam | Shah Alam Siddique | Shakil Ahmed | Nurnabi Sheikh | Ashraf Uddin Siddik | Muhammad Shariful Islam | Firdausi Qadri
Date of Publication:
August 23, 2019
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The new influx of forcibly displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs) into Bangladesh started in August 2017 through different entry points of Bangladesh. Considering the imminent threat of infectious disease outbreaks, the Government of Bangladesh vaccinated children against three deadly diseases (measles/rubella (MR) and poliomyelitis (OPV)) and administered oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to all children except those aged <1 year. After completion of the campaigns, a post-vaccination campaign evaluation was carried out to assess vaccine coverage. The post-vaccination campaign evaluation was conducted after completion of the 2nd doses of OCV (OCV2) and OPV (OPV2) through a cross-sectional survey. The evaluation was conducted in the Balukhali camps under Ukhiya upazilla. Data were collected from 39,438 FDMNs during the survey period. The highest coverage rate was observed for OCVs (94% for OCV1 and 92% for OCV2). By contrast, lower coverage was observed for the other vaccines; the coverage for OPV1, OPV2 and MR were 75%, 88% and 38%, respectively. Unawareness (30.7% individuals did not know about the campaign) was the most notable cause of low vaccine coverage for MR. In conclusion, the experience in Bangladesh demonstrates that vaccine campaigns can be successfully implemented as part of a comprehensive response against disease outbreaks among high-risk populations during humanitarian crises.