Kelly Osezele Elimian | Anwar Musah | Somto Mezue | Oyeronke Oyebanji | Sebastian Yennan | Arisekola Jinadu | Nanpring Williams | Adesola Ogunleye | Ibrahima Soce Fall | Michel Yao | Womi-Eteng Eteng | Patrick Abok | Michael Popoola | Martin Chukwuji | Linda Haj Omar | Eme Ekeng | Thieno Balde | Ibrahim Mamadu | Ayodele Adeyemo | Geoffrey Namara | Ifeanyi Okudo | Wondimagegnehu Alemu | Clement Peter | Chikwe Ihekweazu
Date of Publication:
BMC Public Health
A large-scale cholera outbreak occurred in Nigeria in 2018. Evidence on the current epidemiology of cholera required to design and implement appropriate interventions to attain the global roadmap strategic goals for cholera elimination however seems lacking. This study aimed to address this gap by describing the epidemiology of the 2018 cholera outbreak in Nigeria. This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected between January 1st and November 19th, 2018. Overall, 43,996 cholera cases and 836 cholera deaths were reported across 20 states in Nigeria during this period, with an attack rate (AR) of 127.43/100,000 population and a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.90%. Individuals aged 15 years or older (47.76%) were the most affected age group, but the proportion of affected males and females was about the same (49% and 51%, respectively). The outbreak was characterised by four distinct epidemic waves, with higher number of deaths recorded in the third and fourth waves. States from the northwest and northeast regions recorded the highest ARs, while those from the northcentral regions recorded the highest CFRs. The severity and wide-geographical distribution of cholera cases and deaths during the 2018 outbreak are indicative of an elevated burden, which was more notable in the northern region of the country. Overall, the findings reaffirm the strategic role of a multi-sectoral approach in the design and implementation of public health interventions aimed to prevent and control cholera in Nigeria.