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Post-vaccination campaign coverage evaluation of oral cholera vaccine, oral polio vaccine and measles–rubella vaccine among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals in Bangladesh
Ashraful Islam Khan | Md Taufiqul Islam | Shah Alam Siddique | Shakil Ahmed | Nurnabi Sheikh | Ashraf Uddin Siddik | Muhammad Shariful Islam | Firdausi Qadri
Date of Publication:
August 23, 2019
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The new influx of forcibly displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs) into Bangladesh started in August 2017 through different entry points of Bangladesh. Considering the imminent threat of infectious disease outbreaks, the Government of Bangladesh vaccinated children against three deadly diseases (measles/rubella (MR) and poliomyelitis (OPV)) and administered oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to all children except those aged <1 year. After completion of the campaigns, a post-vaccination campaign evaluation was carried out to assess vaccine coverage. The post-vaccination campaign evaluation was conducted after completion of the 2nd doses of OCV (OCV2) and OPV (OPV2) through a cross-sectional survey. The evaluation was conducted in the Balukhali camps under Ukhiya upazilla. Data were collected from 39,438 FDMNs during the survey period. The highest coverage rate was observed for OCVs (94% for OCV1 and 92% for OCV2). By contrast, lower coverage was observed for the other vaccines; the coverage for OPV1, OPV2 and MR were 75%, 88% and 38%, respectively. Unawareness (30.7% individuals did not know about the campaign) was the most notable cause of low vaccine coverage for MR. In conclusion, the experience in Bangladesh demonstrates that vaccine campaigns can be successfully implemented as part of a comprehensive response against disease outbreaks among high-risk populations during humanitarian crises.
Cholera prevention and control in refugee settings: Successes and continued challenges
Kerry Shannon | Marisa Hast | Andrew S. Azman | Dominique Legros | Heather McKay | Justin Lessler
Date of Publication:
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cholera has long been viewed as a serious threat for refugee populations. In the 1980s and 90s, refugee camps proliferated in Africa and Asia as a result of large civil wars and environmental disasters. These camps experienced large-scale cholera outbreaks with regularity because of overcrowding, scarce clean water, and poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Death rates were often high because of preexisting malnutrition, comorbidities, and limited access to medical care. Mobilization around these issues was greatly accelerated in 1994, when a particularly massive outbreak occurred among Rwandan refugees in the Lake Kivu region of Zaire (present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo), and approximately 42,000 people died. In response to this unprecedented tragedy, the humanitarian community developed and adopted the Sphere standards for the minimum acceptable living conditions and availability of health services in refugee camps and other humanitarian responses. Although refugee camps continue to experience many vulnerabilities, the increased focus on improved camp coordination, preparedness, timely multisectoral response, and adherence to minimum standards has resulted in a notable decrease in the number and size of camp-based cholera outbreaks and associated mortality.