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Dynamics of cholera epidemics from Benin to Mauritania
Sandra Moore | Anthony Zunuo Dongdem | David Opare | Paul Cottavoz | Maria Fookes | Adodo Yao Sadji | Emmanuel Dzotsi | Michael Dogbe | Fakhri Jeddi | Bawimodom Bidjada | Martine Piarroux | Ouyi Tante Valentin | Clément Kakaï Glèlè | Stanislas Rebaudet | Amy Gassama Sow | Guillaume Constantin de Magny | Lamine Koivogui | Jessica Dunoyer | Francois Bellet | Eric Garnotel | Nicholas Thomson | Renaud Piarroux
Date of Publication:
PLoS neglected tropical diseases
The countries of West Africa are largely portrayed as cholera endemic, although the dynamics of outbreaks in this region of Africa remain largely unclear. To understand the dynamics of cholera in a major portion of West Africa, we analyzed cholera epidemics from 2009 to 2015 from Benin to Mauritania. We conducted a series of field visits as well as multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis and whole-genome sequencing analysis of V. cholerae isolates throughout the study region. During this period, Ghana accounted for 52% of the reported cases in the entire study region (coastal countries from Benin to Mauritania). From 2009 to 2015, we found that one major wave of cholera outbreaks spread from Accra in 2011 northwestward to Sierra Leone and Guinea in 2012. Molecular epidemiology analysis confirmed that the 2011 Ghanaian isolates were related to those that seeded the 2012 epidemics in Guinea and Sierra Leone. Interestingly, we found that many countries deemed “cholera endemic” actually suffered very few outbreaks, with multi-year lulls. This study provides the first cohesive vision of the dynamics of cholera epidemics in a major portion of West Africa. This epidemiological overview shows that from 2009 to 2015, at least 54% of reported cases concerned populations living in the three urban areas of Accra, Freetown, and Conakry. These findings may serve as a guide to better target cholera prevention and control efforts in the identified cholera hotspots in West Africa.
Identification of Atypical El Tor V. cholerae O1 Ogawa Hosting SXT Element in Senegal, Africa
Bissoume Sambe-Ba | Mamadou H. Diallo | Abdoulaye Seck | Abdoul A. Wane | Guillaume Constantin de Magny | Cheikh S.-B. Boye | Ahmad I. Sow | Amy Gassama-Sow
Date of Publication:
Frontiers in Microbiology
In 2004–2005, Senegal experienced major cholera epidemic with a number of cases totalling more than 31719 with approximately 458 fatal outcomes (CFR, 1.44%). In this retrospective study, fifty isolates out of a total of 403 V. cholerae biotype El Tor serovar Ogawa isolates from all areas in Senegal during the 2004–2005 cholera outbreak were randomly selected. Isolates were characterized using phenotypic and genotypic methods. The analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns revealed the predominance of the S-Su-TCY-Tsu phenotype (90% of isolates). The molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance revealed the presence of the SXT element, a self-transmissible chromosomally integrating element in all isolates. Most of V. cholerae isolates had an intact virulence cassette (86%) (ctx, zot, ace genes). All isolates tested gave amplification with primers for classical CT, and 10/50 (20%) of isolates carried classical and El Tor ctxB. The study reveals the presence of atypical V. cholerae O1 El Tor during cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2004–2005.
Cholera Outbreak in Senegal in 2005: Was Climate a Factor?
Guillaume Constantin de Magny | Wassila Thiaw | Vadlamani Kumar | Noël M. Manga | Bernard M. Diop | Lamine Gueye | Mamina Kamara | Benjamin Roche | Raghu Murtugudde | Rita R. Colwell | Mike B. Gravenor
Date of Publication:
Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region.