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Antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains isolated during cholera complications in Siberia and the Far East of Russia
A. S. Gladkikh | S. I. Feranchuk | A. S. Ponomareva | N. O. Bochalgin | L. V. Mironova
Date of Publication:
March 1, 2020
Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Currently, the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global trend and poses a severe threat to public health. The causative agent of cholera, a severe infectious disease with pandemic expansion, becomes more and more resistant to a wider range of drugs with every coming year. The Vibrio cholerae genome is highly flexible and adaptive; the acquisition of the SXT mobile element with a cluster of antibiotic resistance genes on it has marked a new stage in the adaptive evolution of the pathogen. The territory of Siberia and the Russian Far East is free of cholera; however, in the 1970s and 1990s a number of infection importation cases and acute outbreaks associated with the cholera importation were reported. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotypic characteristics and genetic determinants of AMR in V. cholerae strains isolated during epidemic complications in Siberia and the Far East of Russia, as well as to clarify the origin of the strains. The present research comprises analysis of nine V. cholerae El Tor strains isolated from patients and water sources during epidemic complications in Siberia and the Russian Far East in the 1990s. Here, we compared the phenotypic manifestations of antibiotic resistance among strains, harbored the resistance patterns in genomes; we also determined the structure, the type of SXT elements, and the mobilome profile based on the accepted classification. We identified that strains that caused outbreaks in Vladivostok and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in 1999 had ICEVchCHN4210 type SXT element with deletion of some loci. The research shows that the integration of the genome, SNP and the mobilome, associated with antibiotic resistance, analyses is necessary to understand the cholera epidemiology, it also helps to establish the origin of strains. The study of resistance determinants features allowed to make a conclusion about the heterogeneity of V. cholerae strains that were isolated during outbreaks in Vladivostok and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in 1999.
The history, genome and biology of NCTC 30: a non-pandemic Vibrio cholerae isolate from World War One
Matthew J. Dorman | Leanne Kane | Daryl Domman | Jake D. Turnbull | Claire Cormie | Mohammed-Abbas Fazal | David A. Goulding | Julie E. Russell | Sarah Alexander | Nicholas R. Thomson
Date of Publication:
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
The sixth global cholera pandemic lasted from 1899 to 1923. However, despite widespread fear of the disease and of its negative effects on troop morale, very few soldiers in the British Expeditionary Forces contracted cholera between 1914 and 1918. Here, we have revived and sequenced the genome of NCTC 30, a 102-year-old Vibrio cholerae isolate, which we believe is the oldest publicly available live V. cholerae strain in existence. NCTC 30 was isolated in 1916 from a British soldier convalescent in Egypt. We found that this strain does not encode cholera toxin, thought to be necessary to cause cholera, and is not part of V. cholerae lineages responsible for the pandemic disease. We also show that NCTC 30, which predates the introduction of penicillin-based antibiotics, harbours a functional β-lactamase antibiotic resistance gene. Our data corroborate and provide molecular explanations for previous phenotypic studies of NCTC 30 and provide a new high-quality genome sequence for historical, non-pandemic V. cholerae.