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Formative research for the design of a scalable mobile health program water, sanitation, and hygiene: CHoBI7 mobile health program
Christine Marie George | Fatema Zohura | Alana Teman | Elizabeth Thomas | Tasdik Hasan | Sohel Rana | Tahmina Parvin | David A. Sack | Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian | Alain Labrique | Jahed Masud | Peter Winch | Elli Leontsini | Kelsey Zeller | Farzana Begum | Abul Hasem Khan | Sanya Tahmina | Farazana Munum | Shirajum Monira | Munirul Alam
Date of Publication:
BMC Public Health
The Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) is a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention program delivered by a health promoter bedside in a health facility and through home visits to diarrhea patients and their household members during the 7 days after admission to a health facility. In a randomized controlled trial among cholera patient households in Bangladesh, the 7-day CHoBI7 program resulted in a significant reduction in cholera among household members of cholera patients and sustained improvements in drinking water quality and handwashing with soap practices 12 months post-intervention. In an effort to take this intervention to scale across Bangladesh in partnership with the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, this study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of mobile health (mHealth) programs as a low-cost, scalable approach for CHoBI7 program delivery. A theory- and evidence-based approach using qualitative research methods was implemented to design the CHoBI7 mHealth program. Semi-structured interviews with government stakeholders identified perceptions and preferences for scaling the CHoBI7 mHealth program. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews with diarrhea patients and their family members identified beneficiary perceptions of mHealth and preferences for CHoBI7 mHealth program delivery. mHealth workshops were conducted as an interactive approach to draft and refine mobile message content based on stakeholder preferences. The pilot findings indicate that the CHoBI7 mHealth program has high user acceptability and is feasible to deliver to diarrhea patients that present at health facilities for treatment in Bangladesh. Both text and voice messages were recommended for program delivery. Dr. Chobi, the sender of mHealth messages, was viewed as a credible source of information that could be shared with others. Overall, this study presents a theory- and evidence-based approach that can be implemented for the development of future water, sanitation, and hygiene mHealth programs in low-resource settings.
Using Mobile Health (mHealth) and Geospatial Mapping Technology in a Mass Campaign for Reactive Oral Cholera Vaccination in Rural Haiti
Jessica E. Teng | Dana R. Thomson | Jonathan S. Lascher | Max Raymond | Louise C. Ivers | John Clemens
Date of Publication:
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
In mass vaccination campaigns, large volumes of data must be managed efficiently and accurately. In a reactive oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in rural Haiti during an ongoing epidemic, we used a mobile health (mHealth) system to manage data on 50,000 participants in two isolated communities.
Data were collected using 7-inch tablets. Teams pre-registered and distributed vaccine cards with unique barcodes to vaccine-eligible residents during a census in February 2012. First stored on devices, data were uploaded nightly via Wi-fi to a web-hosted database. During the vaccination campaign between April and June 2012, residents presented their cards at vaccination posts and their barcodes were scanned. Vaccinee data from the census were pre-loaded on tablets to autopopulate the electronic form. Nightly analysis of the day's community coverage informed the following day's vaccination strategy. We generated case-finding reports allowing us to identify those who had not yet been vaccinated.
During 40 days of vaccination, we collected approximately 1.9 million pieces of data. A total of 45,417 people received at least one OCV dose; of those, 90.8% were documented to have received 2 doses. Though mHealth required up-front financial investment and training, it reduced the need for paper registries and manual data entry, which would have been costly, time-consuming, and is known to increase error. Using Global Positioning System coordinates, we mapped vaccine posts, population size, and vaccine coverage to understand the reach of the campaign. The hardware and software were usable by high school-educated staff.
The use of mHealth technology in an OCV campaign in rural Haiti allowed timely creation of an electronic registry with population-level census data, and a targeted vaccination strategy in a dispersed rural population receiving a two-dose vaccine regimen. The use of mHealth should be strongly considered in mass vaccination campaigns in future initiatives.