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Changing Molecular Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae Outbreaks in Shanghai, China
Dalong Hu | Zhiqiu Yin | Chao Yuan | Pan Yang | Chengqian Qian | Yi Wei | Si Zhang | Yuhui Wang | Jian Yuan | Meng Wang | Peter R. Reeves | Lihong Tu | Min Chen | Di Huang | Bin Liu
Date of Publication:
The 7th cholera pandemic began in 1961 in Sulawesi, Indonesia, and then spread around the world in at least three waves. However, the lack of genome sequences for Vibrio cholerae strains under long-term surveillance in East Asia, especially in China, has restricted our understanding of the dynamics of the intracountry and intercountry evolution and transmission of the 7th-pandemic clones. In this study, we obtained the genome sequences of 60 V. cholerae strains isolated in Shanghai, the largest port in the world and the largest city in China, from 1961 to 2011. Our whole-genome-based phylogeny of 7th-pandemic strains revealed that all but one fell into five “stages,” most of which are single clades and share independent ancestors. Each stage dominated in succession for a period, with little overlap between them. In addition, two near-identical Shanghai strains belonging to a pre-7th-pandemic precursor and 4 nontoxigenic O1/O139 strains attributed to independent recombination events at the O-antigen loci were present. The major lineages of the 7th pandemic in Shanghai appeared to be closely related to V. cholerae strains isolated from South or Southeast Asia. Stage succession was consistently related to changes in society and human activity, implying that human-caused niche change may play a vital role in the cholera dynamics in Shanghai.
Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China
Hui Lü | Yuqi Yuan | Na Sun | Zhenwang Bi | Bing Guan | Kun Shao | Tongzhan Wang | Zhenqiang Bi
Date of Publication:
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains.