Our Advisory Council
To respond to the increasin...
An alliance of prominent or...
An advocacy tool
A contagious diarrhoeal dis...
Our prevention strategy
Methodology for the elimina...
A best practice model in th...
A best practice model in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Cholera Source Areas in DRC
A multisectorial action plan
Logos & banners
full text open access
subscription journal abstract
Spatial analysis of risk factor of cholera outbreak for 2003–2004 in a peri-urban area of Lusaka, Zambia
S. Sasaki | H. Suzuki | K. Igarashi | B. Tambatamba | P. Mulenga
Date of Publication:
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
A cholera outbreak occurred in Lusaka city between November 28, 2003 and June 8, 2004, and 6,542 cases with 187 deaths (case fatality rata: 2.86) were reported. We analyzed the distribution of cholera cases, the mode of cholera transmission, and the risk factors affecting cholera infection in a peri-urban area of Lusaka by using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a matched case-control method. Chloropleth mapping of the incidences of cholera showed variation of the incidences in the study area. Our analysis indicated a significant association between the lack of latrine and drainage systems surrounding houses and high incidence of cholera. The matched case-control study showed the protective role of chlorination of drinking water and of hand washing with soap for cholera prevention. We concluded that cholera occurred because of personal behavior and the environment conditions of daily life.
Epidemic cholera in urban Zambia: hand soap and dried fish as protective factors
A. E. Dubois | M. Sinkala | P. Kalluri | M. Makasa-Chikoya | R. E. Quick
Date of Publication:
Epidemiology and Infection
Between 28 November 2003 and 23 February 2004, 4343 cases and 154 deaths from cholera (case-fatality rate 3•5%) were reported in Lusaka, Zambia. A case-control study was conducted in February 2004 to assess potential transmission routes and prevention strategies. Consumption of raw vegetables was significantly associated with cholera [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4•7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1•7–13, P=0•003). Consumption of a local sardine-like fish was protective (aOR 0•3, 95% CI 0•1–0•7, P=0•008). Hand soap was present in 90% of control homes and 58% of case homes. Observed hand soap was a strongly protective factor (aOR 0•1, 95% CI 0•04–0•4, P=0•001). No water source or treatment practice was significantly associated with cholera. This study documents the importance of foodborne transmission of cholera, illustrates the protective role of hand washing in an epidemic setting, and identifies a novel possible protective factor, a local fish, which warrants further research.