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Cholera Source Areas in DRC
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case-area targeted interventions
Description of the targeted water supply and hygiene response strategy implemented during the cholera outbreak of 2017–2018 in Kinshasa, DRC
Didier Bompangue | Sandra Moore | Nadège Taty | Benido IMPOUMA | Bertrand Sudre | Richard Manda | Thierno Balde | Franck Mboussou | Thierry Vandevelde
Date of Publication:
March 18, 2020
BMC Infectious Diseases
Rapid control of cholera outbreaks is a significant challenge in overpopulated urban areas. During late-2017, Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, experienced a cholera outbreak that showed potential to spread throughout the city. A novel targeted water and hygiene response strategy was implemented to quickly stem the outbreak.
We describe the first implementation of the cluster grid response strategy carried out in the community during the cholera outbreak in Kinshasa, in which response activities targeted cholera case clusters using a grid approach. Interventions focused on emergency water supply, household water treatment and safe storage, home disinfection and hygiene promotion. We also performed a preliminary community trial study to assess the temporal pattern of the outbreak before and after response interventions were implemented.
From January 2017 to November 2018, a total of 1712 suspected cholera cases were reported in Kinshasa. During this period, the most affected health zones included Binza Météo, Limeté, Kokolo, Kintambo and Kingabwa. Following implementation of the response strategy, the weekly cholera case numbers in Binza Météo, Kintambo and Limeté decreased by an average of 57% after 2 weeks and 86% after 4 weeks. The total weekly case numbers throughout Kinshasa Province dropped by 71% 4 weeks after the peak of the outbreak.
A similar approach may be adapted to quickly interrupt cholera transmission in other urban settings.
Estimating effectiveness of case-area targeted response interventions against cholera in Haiti
Edwige Michel | Jean Gaudart | Samuel Beaulieu | Gregory Bulit | Martine Piarroux | Jacques Boncy | Patrick Dely | Renaud Piarroux | Stanislas Rebaudet
Date of Publication:
Dec 30, 2019
Case-area targeted interventions (CATIs) against cholera are conducted by rapid response teams, and may include various activities like water, sanitation, hygiene measures. However, their real-world effectiveness has never been established. We conducted a retrospective observational study in 2015-2017 in the Centre department of Haiti. Using cholera cases, stool cultures and CATI records, we identified 238 outbreaks that were responded to. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that a prompt response could reduce the number of accumulated cases by 76% (95% confidence interval, 59 to 86) and the outbreak duration by 61% (41 to 75) when compared to a delayed response. An intense response could reduce the number of accumulated cases by 59% (11 to 81) and the outbreak duration by 73% (49 to 86) when compared to a weaker response. These results suggest that prompt and repeated CATIs were significantly effective at mitigating and shortening cholera outbreaks in Haiti.
Feasibility of a Comprehensive Targeted Cholera Intervention in The Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Mellisa Roskosky | Bhim Acharya | Geeta Shakya | Kshitij Karki | Kazutaka Sekine | Deepak Bajracharya | Lorenz von Seidlein | Isabelle Devaux | Anna Lena Lopez | Jacqueline Deen | David A. Sack
Date of Publication:
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
A comprehensive targeted intervention (CTI) was designed and deployed in the neighborhoods of cholera cases in the Kathmandu Valley with the intent of reducing rates among the neighbors of the case. This was a feasibility study to determine whether clinical centers, laboratories, and field teams were able to mount a rapid, community-based response to a case within 2 days of hospital admission. Daily line listings were requested from 15 participating hospitals during the monsoon season, and a single case initiated the CTI. A standard case definition was used: acute watery diarrhea, with or without vomiting, in a patient aged 1 year or older. Rapid diagnostic tests and bacterial culture were used for confirmation. The strategy included household investigation of cases; water testing; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) intervention; and health education. A CTI coverage survey was conducted 8 months postintervention. From June to December of 2016, 169 cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 were confirmed by bacterial culture. Average time to culture result was 3 days. On average, the CTI Rapid Response Team (RRT) was able to visit households 1.7 days after the culture result was received from the hospital (3.9 days from hospital admission). Coverage of WASH and health behavior messaging campaigns were 30.2% in the target areas. Recipients of the intervention were more likely to have knowledge of cholera symptoms, treatment, and prevention than non-recipients. Although the RRT were able to investigate cases at the household within 2 days of a positive culture result, the study identified several constraints that limited a truly rapid response.