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Contemporary Nigerian public health problem: prevention and surveillance are key to combating cholera
Israel Oluwasegun Ayenigbara | George Omoniyi Ayenigbara | Rowland Olasunkanmi Adeleke
Date of Publication:
GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
This review characterizes a cholera outbreak in Nigeria in 2017/2018. On the basis of own experiences and the analysis of historical outbreaks, the Vibrio cholera strains, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, and most important the prevention and control measures are identified. Untreated, the lethality of cholera is up to 70%. Therefore, a multifaceted approach including public policy, surveillance, water purification and hygiene, community sensitization, and the use of oral cholera vaccination is vital to prevent, control, and reduce the cholera mortality rate. It is recommended that the government pass legislation to implement preventive and surveillance measures, e.g., invest in drinking water systems, sanitation systems and sewage treatment, and promote public education on basic hygiene. The latter includes boiling and treating water before drinking, washing hands frequently with soap and clean water, thoroughly cooking food before consumption, avoiding open defecation, disposing of wastes properly, and immediately taking anyone with signs and symptoms of cholera such as watery diarrhea to the hospital for treatment.
Cholera outbreak in a naïve rural community in Northern Nigeria: the importance of hand washing with soap, September 2010
Saheed Gidado | Emmanuel Awosanya | Suleiman Haladu | Halimatu Bolatito Ayanleke | Suleman Idris | Ismaila Mamuda | Abdulaziz Mohammed | Charles Akataobi Michael | Ndadilnasiya Endie Waziri | Patrick Nguku
Date of Publication:
The Pan African Medical Journal
Cholera outbreaks in rural communities are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Effective interventions to control these outbreaks require identification of source and risk factors for infection. In September, 2010 we investigated a cholera outbreak in Bashuri, a cholera naïve rural community in northern Nigeria to identify the risk factors and institute control measures. We conducted an unmatched case-control study. Mean age was 29 years (± 20 years) for cases and 32 years (± 16 years) for controls; 38 (47.5%) of cases and 60 (75%) of controls were males. Compared to controls, cases were less likely to have washed hands with soap before eating (age-adjusted odds ratio (AAOR) = 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.72) and less likely to have washed hands with soap after using the toilet (AAOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.75). Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated from six stool samples but not from any open-well samples. Unhygienic handwashing practices was the key risk factor in this outbreak. We educated the community on personal hygiene focusing on the importance of handwashing with soap.