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Epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae associated with the 2017 outbreak in Kasese district, Uganda
Jacob Stanley Iramiot | Innocent B. Rwego | Catherine Kansiime | Benon B. Asiimwe
Date of Publication:
BMC Public Health
Uganda is among the 51 countries where cholera outbreaks are common with epidemics occurring predominantly along the western border with Democratic Republic of Congo, Kampala city slums, Busia district which is a border town with Western Kenya, Mbale district and the Karamoja Sub-region. This report summarizes findings from the epidemiologic investigation, which aimed at identifying the mode of transmission and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the Vibrio cholerae isolated in Kasese district, Uganda. A total of 222 cases were recorded in the Kasese District outbreak between the month of September 2017 and January 2018 with the case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.4%. Children below the age of 14 years contributed the biggest proportion of the cases (70%) and out of these, 33% were aged below 5 years. Culture isolated 69 V. cholerae 01 serotype Inaba from the total of 71 samples. Salmonella typhi was Isolated from the other two samples which were negative for V. cholerae. Antibiotic susceptibility using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was done on isolates from 69 participants and showed 100% resistance to Ampicillin and over 50% were resistant to trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole whereas gentamicin showed 100% susceptibility. Environmental assessment revealed rampant cases of open defecation. In conclusion, although we did not culture water to confirm contamination with Vibrio cholerae, we hypothesize that the cholera epidemic in Kasese 2017 was sparked off by consumption of contaminated water following the heavy floods that washed away latrines into water sources in Bwera, Isango and Nakiyumbu sub-counties. V. cholerae was also highly resistant to the commonly used antibiotics.
A cholera outbreak caused by drinking contaminated river water, Bulambuli District, Eastern Uganda, March 2016
Paul Edward Okello | Lilian Bulage | Alex Ario Riolexus | Daniel Kadobera | Benon Kwesiga | Henry Kajumbula | Muhamed Mulongo | Eunice Jennifer Namboozo | Godfrey Pimundu | Isaac Ssewanyana | Charles Kiyaga | Steven Aisu | Bao-Ping Zhu
Date of Publication:
BMC Infectious Diseases
A cholera outbreak started on 29 February in Bwikhonge Sub-county, Bulambuli District in Eastern Uganda. Local public health authorities implemented initial control measures. However, in late March, cases sharply increased in Bwikhonge Sub-county. We investigated the outbreak to determine its scope and mode of transmission, and to inform control measures.
We identified 108 suspected cases (attack rate: 1.3%, 108/8404), including 7 confirmed cases. The case-control study revealed that 78% (78/100) of case-patients compared with 51% (51/100) of control-persons usually collected drinking water from the nearby Cheptui River (ORMH = 7.8, 95% CI = 2.7–22); conversely, 35% (35/100) of case-patients compared with 54% (54/100) of control-persons usually collected drinking water from borehole pumps (ORMH = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13–0.65). The index case in Bwikhonge Sub-county had onset on 29 February but the outbreak had been on-going in the neighbouring sub-counties in the previous 3 months. V. cholera was isolated in 2 of the 7 river water samples collected from different locations.
We concluded that this cholera outbreak was caused by drinking contaminated water from Cheptui River. We recommended boiling and/or treating drinking water, improved sanitation, distribution of chlorine tablets to the affected villages, and as a long-term solution, construction of more borehole pumps. After implementing preventive measures, the number of cases declined and completely stopped after 6th April.
Outbreak investigation of cholera outbreak in a slum area of urban Wardha, India: An interventional epidemiological study
Sourav Goswami | Anupriya Jha | Sarinkumar Puthenveettil Sivan | Dharampal Dambhare | Subodh Saran Gupta
Date of Publication:
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Cholera, though a preventable and treatable disease, is still regarded as an important public health problem in developing countries including India. Migration, unhygienic living conditions, overcrowding, open field defecation, and ignorance about the spread of disease are the major reasons for the occurrence of cholera in the slum areas. Cholera was detected in the stool sample of a 3-year-old child from a slum area of urban Wardha, which demanded an urgent outbreak investigation to be carried out before it progressed into an epidemic.
This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study, where we have used pretested, predesigned epidemiological case sheets obtained from IDSP. A case definition was proposed before beginning the investigation. Linelisting, collection of stool and water samples, immediate referral, and treatment of the patients suffering from loose stool and/or vomiting were performed. A detailed epidemiological report was made with recommendations and plan of action that was forwarded to the district health system.
In all, 28 suspected cases of cholera were line listed. Among the affected population, more than half of the suspected cases were from the age group of 0–10 years of age. Males were more affected when compared with females. The overall attack rate was 27% and case fatality rate was 0%. There was positive history of travel in the index case. Two of the water samples were found to be unsatisfactory for drinking.