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Cholera in selected countries in Asia
Anna Lena Lopez | Shanta Dutta | Firdausi Qadri | Ly Sovann | Basu Dev Pandey | Wan Mansor Bin Hamzah | Iqbal Memon | Sopon Iamsirithaworn | Duc Anh Dang | Fahima Chowdhury | Seng Heng | Suman Kanungo | Vittal Mogasale | Ashraf Sultan | Michelle Ylade
Date of Publication:
February 29, 2020
Although the current pandemic of cholera originated in Asia, reports of cholera cases and outbreaks in the region are sparse. To provide a sub-regional assessment of cholera in South and Southeast Asia, we collated published and unpublished data from existing surveillance systems from Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. From 2011 to 2016, confirmed cholera cases were identified in at least one year of the 5- or 6-year period in the countries included. Surveillance for cholera exists in most countries, but cases are not always reported. India reported the most number of confirmed cases with a mean of 5964 cases annually. The mean number of cases per year in the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Nepal and Thailand were 760, 592, 285, 264, 148 and 88, respectively. Cambodia and Vietnam reported 51 and 3 confirmed cholera cases in 2011, with no subsequent reported cases. Overall, we highlight the continuing existence of the disease even in areas with improved sanitation and access to safe drinking water. Continued vigilance and improved surveillance in countries should be strongly encouraged.
Comparing alternative cholera vaccination strategies in Maela refugee camp: using a transmission model in public health practice
Joshua Havumaki | Rafael Meza | Christina R. Phares | Kashmira Date | Marisa C. Eisenberg
Date of Publication:
BMC Infectious Diseases
Cholera is a major public health concern in displaced-person camps, which often contend with overcrowding and scarcity of resources. Maela, the largest and longest-standing refugee camp in Thailand, located along the Thai-Burmese border, experienced four cholera outbreaks between 2005 and 2010. In 2013, a cholera vaccine campaign was implemented in the camp. To assist in the evaluation of the campaign and planning for subsequent campaigns, we developed a mathematical model of cholera in Maela.
We found that preexposure vaccination can substantially reduce the risk of cholera even when <50% of the population is given the full two-dose series. Additionally, the preferred number of doses per person should be considered in the context of one vs. two dose effectiveness and vaccine availability. For reactive vaccination, a trade-off between timing and effectiveness was revealed, indicating that it may be beneficial to give one dose to more people rather than two doses to fewer people, given that a two-dose schedule would incur a delay in administration of the second dose. Forecasting using realistic coverage levels predicted that there was no need for a booster campaign in 2014 (consistent with our predictions, there was not a cholera epidemic in 2014).
Our analyses suggest that vaccination in conjunction with ongoing water sanitation and hygiene efforts provides an effective strategy for controlling cholera outbreaks in refugee camps. Effective preexposure vaccination depends on timing and effectiveness. If a camp is facing an outbreak, delayed distribution of vaccines can substantially alter the effectiveness of reactive vaccination, suggesting that quick distribution of vaccines may be more important than ensuring every individual receives both vaccine doses. Overall, this analysis illustrates how mathematical models can be applied in public health practice, to assist in evaluating alternative intervention strategies and inform decision-making.
Cholera prevention and control in refugee settings: Successes and continued challenges
Kerry Shannon | Marisa Hast | Andrew S. Azman | Dominique Legros | Heather McKay | Justin Lessler
Date of Publication:
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cholera has long been viewed as a serious threat for refugee populations. In the 1980s and 90s, refugee camps proliferated in Africa and Asia as a result of large civil wars and environmental disasters. These camps experienced large-scale cholera outbreaks with regularity because of overcrowding, scarce clean water, and poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Death rates were often high because of preexisting malnutrition, comorbidities, and limited access to medical care. Mobilization around these issues was greatly accelerated in 1994, when a particularly massive outbreak occurred among Rwandan refugees in the Lake Kivu region of Zaire (present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo), and approximately 42,000 people died. In response to this unprecedented tragedy, the humanitarian community developed and adopted the Sphere standards for the minimum acceptable living conditions and availability of health services in refugee camps and other humanitarian responses. Although refugee camps continue to experience many vulnerabilities, the increased focus on improved camp coordination, preparedness, timely multisectoral response, and adherence to minimum standards has resulted in a notable decrease in the number and size of camp-based cholera outbreaks and associated mortality.